Recent Advances and New Species in Aquaculture focuses explicitly on the ever-changing face of aquaculture, providing core scientific and commercially useful information on the remarkable growth in aquaculture production and in the advancement of new technological tools. This is leading to the evolution of the global aquaculture industry; an industry which is rapidly becoming one of the fastest growing in the world as well as in Pakistan.
With wild stocks declining due to over-fishing, aquaculture will have a more significant role to play in meeting future demand for fresh fish. Developments in research continue to lead to improvements in aquaculture production systems, resulting in increased production efficiency, higher product quality for consumers and a more sustainable industry.
Some innovations that changed the face of Aquaculture are discussed below:
Biotechnology can be applied to enhance reproduction and early development success of cultured organisms, as well as expand periods of gamete and fry availability. It may provide avenues for improving the reproductive success and survival of endangered species, thereby helping to identify and conserve aquatic biodiversity.
There is increasing concern over the consequences of newly emerging diseases in aquaculture. Conventional methods of controlling such diseases, such as chemotherapeutants, are ineffective for many new pathogens (notably viruses), thus, molecular techniques are receiving increasing attention for pathogen screening and identification.
New technologies offer opportunities for development of alternatives to fishmeal, especially plant based protein sources, by enhancing production and processing techniques.
Holding Systems/ Pre-Market Conditioning
Another recent development in holding technology has been in closed-circulation systems. These systems have shown great potential for reducing fishmeal consumption compared with open field farming. An interesting sector which has opened up in recent years is the temporary holding of fish to improve meat quality.
New Species Introduction In Aquaculture
The rationale behind the introduction of a species to a new location as a target farming species usually includes existing culture technology, existing market demand, and anticipated high profit. Fish farmers expect a quick profit, since a species that can be mass produced with existing technology and already has proven market demand should require no additional investments in technology and market development. For example, Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus, and O. niloticus), Pangasius, African Cat Fish and Shrimps gained too much popularity.
Factors affecting the success of ranching programmes has improved, interest in this technique has spread to new areas and targeted at new species. Many countries have launched stock enhancement projects for a variety of species.
A key consideration behind all technology transfer to the aquaculture sector is that it should be used with due consideration to the protection of wild aquatic diversity and potential impacts on the autonomy and economy of rural and subsistence populations. The emphasis on biotechnology and its contribution to food security, poverty alleviation, and income generation is increasing and we need to be prepared to address the challenges this will bring, and develop these technologies in a responsible manner.